Reports into consumer trends repeatedly show an interest and desire to shop more sustainably. Looking into how consumers shop once set loose, however, suggests the good intentions don’t always last. A 2018 Accenture surveyshowed that while 65% of consumers say they prefer to buy from brands that are ethical, only 26% of consumers will actually opt to buy from them. Similarly, a 2020 Mckinsey report into consumer views of sustainability in fashion found that the increase in people looking to purchase more sustainably did not necessarily match up to reality – sales for fast fashion retailers such as Boohoo soared during lockdown, at odds with people’s desire to become more sustainable and ethical.
“Consumer concern about the environment does not readily translate into the purchase of environmentally friendly products. Commercial research says 46% of consumers are more inclined to buy a product if it is eco-friendly. But nearly 60% are unwilling to pay more money for that eco-friendly product.”
This intention-action gap is seen across industries, from more sustainable food, to fashion, to cleaning products. It’s hardly surprising, though, when both the affordability and availability of sustainable products makes them much harder to convince people to buy. Currently they are not the norm – most brands lie under ‘luxury’ products with a higher price tag and lower availability.
There is a definite danger of sustainable and ethical living becoming one that privileged people are able to do, and those that have less privilege continue to be unable to afford. Of course, by their nature, sustainable and ethical products cost more to produce, and thus more to sell, but the climate crisis is happening now, and there must be a way of helping people shop better.
At Leo’s Box, we believe we have found a solution to cross the intention-action gap. By selling everyday products at wholesale prices without the large markup of RRP, we are able to provide sustainable products at prices competitive with those found in supermarkets on less sustainable labels. It just seems like the right thing to do.
Leo’s Box’s £4 monthly fee provides customers with access to all these products, and on the brand side allows regular income to order larger batches of products. The more we can buy, the lower the prices, and the better the deal for customers.
Our refer a friend model makes the deal even better – get a friend to sign up and both of you get a free month. More people, more purchasing power, more savings.
Doing the right thing should be easy, and with Leo’s Box membership, it can be! All the products are rigorously tested and researched, ensuring that they’re suitably ethical and sustainable, and of course that they actually work. We only provide necessary products that do good and are good, so doing the right thing is easy.
After attending university in Bristol, I spent a few years pottering around London, forever trying to escape to find more green spaces. In December, my partner and I made the very exciting move back to Bristol as a half-way space between Dorset (where Fiann fossil hunts) and London (where much of my work is).
One of the major benefits of Bristol is that you’re never far from the countryside. Not only was it voted European Green Capital 2015, it also has the delight of being surrounded by nature. Even in the depths of the city, you’re only a short walk or run from open green spaces.
Previously, I lived north of the river. When we returned, we moved south, so I’ve had the chance of exploring some lovely new running routes. I’m going to talk primarily about trail runs (with one exception), as these are the hardest to come by in cities! I’d love for you to comment to let me know your local favourites too!
Avon River Path
Long stretches of flat are almost impossible to come by in Bristol. As a city with the steepest street in the UK, it’s great for getting used to hills. However, if you’re after a flat trail run, the Avon River Path is where it’s at. Start at Ashton Ave Bridge and run west. If you keep running to the coast you’ll reach Pill. There’s a pub there, or you can turn back. It’s around 9km in each direction, but makes for a nice half marathon route with under 90m ascent if you add a little at either end.
The river path actually runs all the way from Pill to Bath, but I’ve not tried much of it in the other direction to Bath. The whole route is 37km.
Ashton Court Estate
Ashton Court is one of the best places to run in Bristol. It even has its own (very hilly) Parkrun in the 850 acre green space. Whether you’re looking for a muddy trail run or road run, there are plenty of options around Ashton Court. There are also multiple different species of deer resident , which makes the estate even cooler. End your run at the (dog friendly) manor house café for tea and cakes, or head on over to Abbott’s Pool or Leigh Woods to extend the run.
The Downs (Clifton/Durdham Downs)
One of my earliest running spots in Bristol was on The Downs, 412 acres (1.7km2) of (almost) flat, open green space conveniently located near to UoB Stoke Bishop halls. Meander around the outside or cut down to Clifton Observatory for the most spectacular views of the Avon Gorge and the Clifton Suspension Bridge.
Blaise Castle Estate
The 650 acres of Blaise Castle Estate are gorgeous. There are races that take part in the estate each year, but it is also open to the general public every day from 7:30am. My first ever trail race was in Blaise Castle! It was extremely muddy and hilly but also lovely.
For the most picturesque and wild running spots accessible from the city centre, head to Leigh Woods. Accessible from the Avon River path, Leigh Woods covers 490 acres (2km2) and is blanketed in ancient woodland. Leigh Woods is a national nature reserve and Site of Specific Scientific Interest (SSSI), which explains the extreme beauty found throughout. Head to Paradise Bottom for one of the most beautiful and secluded spots in Bristol.
Bristol to Bath cycle path
The only non-trail route on this list, the Bristol to Bath cycle path takes the route of the old railway path, meaning that it’s almost flat (although hillier than you might expect of a rail route). It is 13 miles long and completely traffic free (which is why it is on this list). If you fancy doing only one direction, take the train out or back to make it a perfect half marathon route. There are pubs and snack stations along the way for emergency pit stops.
Troopers Hill is a 20.6 acre nature reserve in the St George area of Bristol. It was previously a quarry, which, after being abandoned, recovered well, growing heather and other wild plants and attracting a wide variety of animals. Although it’s relatively small, it’s beautiful, hilly and wild, with a mix of terrain and woodland/open spaces. Connect it up with the Avon River Path to come in and out of the city.
Conham River Park
Slightly further on from Troopers Hill you find Conham River Park, a stretch of the Avon River trail that heads to Bath. This route can be as hilly as you like – follow the river for a flat run, or run up into the half-pipe woodland above to explore the mountain bike routes.
Just be warned – if you live south of the river, this is an out and back route, except in summer where there is a sporadic ferry crossing at Beese’s Riverside Bar.
Check out my experience of the river path (and some serious hills) here!
Situated along the M32 motorway, Stoke Park isn’t perhaps what you’d think of as a secluded spot for trail running, but thanks to its sheer size, there are plenty of places to run away from the sound of traffic. One of the most striking aspects of the park is the bright yellow manor house, visible from the road. Make sure to wear trail shoes – for much of the year parts of the park are extremely muddy.
Oldbury Court Estate and Snuff Mills
Based in the North East of Bristol in Fishponds, Oldbury Court is a 58 acre riverside park with plenty of tree cover and open fields. There are footpaths either side of the river, so it makes for a good trail loop. Make it as hilly as you like by either staying along the river or cutting up through the woods. Alternatively, cut across the motorway to Stoke Park, or down the river to Eastville Park.
Eastwood Farm is a nature reserve based in East Bristol (the opposite side of the river to Conham River Park). The route around the outside is only a few kilometres long, but there is plenty of meandering to be done, or connect it up with Nightingale valley.
The 45 acres of Arnos Vale may not be the biggest green space in Bristol, but the space there is is absolutely gorgeous! There are plenty of trails to meander through in the cemetery, up and down steep hills through the trees. Connect up with routes through Victoria Park, Nightingale Valley, Perrett’s Park and other city-centre routes.
Small but mighty, Nightingale valley packs a punch when it comes to nature in a small space. Best used as part of a route rather than a destination, it follows Brislington Brook through woodland. If you’re a bird-nerd listen out for woodpeckers, jays and the beautiful song thrush. If you’re not, just enjoy the scenery and smells. Follow the woodland through to (or from) St Anne’s Wood, an adjacent small nature reserve.
What are your favourite trail routes in Bristol? Have you tried any of these?
Lockdown 2020 saw a rise in gardening around the world – the tighter the restrictions, the greater the increase in gardening. The benefits are multifold: not only is gardening an activity that can take place within the confines of your home borders, it also provides exercise, time outside (perfect during the extremely long 2020 summer), mental health benefits and, for those planting vegetables, the promise of delicious food – meaning fewer stressful trips to the supermarket!
Sales of compost rose by 41% by the end of June 2020 and a report by the UK’s Office for National Statistics (ONS) showed that 42% of Britons took to gardening to cope with lockdown – a statistic I enthusiastically contributed to. The trend has continued into 2021, with sales of garden furniture jumping by 308% as early as January this year. By May, many styles had fully sold out, signalling peak garden-mania in the UK and beyond.
Getting out into nature is one of the best ways of maintaining good mental health, but, when it comes to attracting wildlife, not all gardens are created equal. With an estimated 24 million gardens in the UK covering more area than all our nature reserves combined, making your garden wildlife friendly is a key contributor to the health of the natural world in this country, especially in and around cities. Wildlife isn’t the only factor to take into consideration, however. The way you garden and the materials you use also will affect the overall impact of your outdoor space both during construction and long after you’re done.
Heavy landscaping if often done using machinery such as diggers, but for smaller spaces, hand digging is not only effective but also cheaper, less hassle and of course uses no fuel. It’s a great form of exercise too and extremely rewarding! We’ve hand-dug tonnes and tonnes of soil (which we are re-using!) and I swear my shoulders are a different shape to when we started.
When you’re planning your garden, consider how many new materials you’ll have to bring in, and how many you’ll have to throw out. Choose a plan that maximises the amount you can reuse in different areas.
For example, when we moved in we decided to re-terrace our garden and re-pave. The soil from each terrace would usually be thrown in a skip (potentially heading for landfill, releasing methane), but instead we are re-structuring the soil so none goes to waste. The old paving may have been chucked, but we are smashing it up to use as hardcore (the solid structure used under paving). We had a sandpit covered in bark for the previous owners’ children, which we will be removing, but instead of throwing out the sand and bark, we reused the sand for mortar and the bark for mulching around the trees (see fern pic below) – great for preserving moisture! Gravel was used in concrete and all the plants have been dug up and potted to be replanted elsewhere. So far only 1 bag has gone to waste.
If you don’t have lots of random building materials in your garden, take a look at Gumtree and Facebook marketplace, and in your local skips. Chances are people will be desperate to get rid of large quantities of items such as sand, hardcore, bark, soil, pallets etc – usually for free – which can be invaluable in your garden. Save money and resources by choosing to reuse as much as possible.
If you are able to, compost your green waste. This recycled the nutrients into high-quality compost, which will be able to help your new garden grow within a few years. Composting is preferable to green waste bins, as these are sometimes incinerated for cheap energy (which releases significant amounts of greenhouse gases). If you don’t have a compost bin, speak to your neighbours or any local allotments, who may be happy to take your green waste.
Native plants are the preferred plants for both wildlife gardening and sustainable gardening. Native plants are those that grow naturally in your region without additional water or special growing conditions. They’re not only cheaper, but also much easier to grow and maintain, and are loved by local wildlife, which have co-evolved to live in symbiosis with many of these plants. Even if you would like some exotic plants in your garden, make sure to mix in native plants to benefits the birds and insects in your area. Entirely non-native gardens may look beautiful, but can effectively be green deserts for local wildlife, providing no benefit whatsoever.
Planting helps retain moisture in the soil, which is beneficial during hotter summer days, meaning less watering (and lower water bills!). By having a variety of plants, and not simply a barren lawn, you’ll be less likely to have to water frequently, and also provide greater habitats for birds and other wildlife. When you do water, do so extensively. Light watering will encourage roots to grow shallow, reducing water retention and making your plants more thirsty in the long run.
If you do have to water, invest in a water butt/rain barrel to capture rainwater from your roof guttering. This helps save water and is better for your plants, as rainwater tends to have more nutrients in that help plants grow.
If you have a lawn, consider letting it go dormant over the summer months. If may not look pretty, but grasses are extremely hardy and designed to bounce back after dry periods.
Lawns may be the preferred ‘low maintenance’ garden for many, but they’re neither particularly low maintenance, nor much of a garden (at least not for wildlife). Standard turf lawns require regular regular mowing, feeding and watering.
If you can, incorporate a variety of plants into your garden, and consider leaving sections of your lawn un-mown. Longer grasses can produce habitats for animals such as frogs and hedgehogs, and if left, can produce flowers such as daises, buttercups and clovers, which are great food sources for many native animals.
Don’t use treatments to get rid of moss. Not only is moss great as it is low maintenance and will grow almost anywhere, it also provides food and nesting materials for birds.
If your garden is prone to weeds and pests, it can be tempting to try weed killer or pesticide, but both of these will have unintended effects on local wildlife too. For weeds, maintain a regular weeding schedule to keep them at bay – it’s not only better for the wildlife but also better exercise for you! Also remember – there is no official definition of a weed, other than a plant growing where you don’t want it’. So if you choose to keep something, it is no longer a weed!
Bio-control can be a good method of keeping pests at bay. Introduce ladybirds to keep aphid numbers under control and attract birds to eat snails and slugs. If you have a vegetable patch, consider covering it to reduce the impact of invertebrates. Nature lives in equilibrium, so while herbicides and pesticides methods may be quicker than bio control, they can be extremely harmful in the long run – not just in your garden but further afield too.
Feeders and bird nests
One of the biggest delights of having a garden is watching garden birds enjoy it. By providing feeders with a wide variety of food sources, you’re more likely to attract birds to your garden. Place feeders in trees or next to shrubs – most birds won’t enjoy exposed feeders in the centre of a barren lawn. If you have kids (or are interested in birds!), consider starting a ‘bird list’, adding which species you see in your garden.
If you have a suitable environment, add a nest box or two to your garden – in the UK there is a shortage of nesting sites leading to the decline of several species. Different species prefer different types of boxes placed in different areas – do research according to the species you’d like to see. We have a blue-tit nesting box in our crab-apple tree and another at the opposite corner of our garden, and a couple of birds nesting in there already!
Seeing the results of your efforts in the form of adorable garden birds is extremely rewarding, and a great way of getting the whole family involved.
Many things that are considered a ‘mess’ in most gardens may also be considered a home for many animals. If you’re cleaning up your garden, consider making it hedgehog friendly by building them a hedgehog home. Piling wood and leaf litter also provides homes for invertebrates, which in turn attract birds and other wildlife.
It’s easy to build insect hotels to provide shelter for some of our key garden pollinators.
Water features are not only beautiful, but they also provide great habitats for invertebrates and amphibians, whose population numbers have declined considerably in recent years. Make sure to build a wildlife pond with access and escape points to prevent drowning.
If you don’t have space for a full wildlife pond, even just adding a small water feature can act as a bird bath and water hole for local wildlife. You can add a solar powered water pump to add some movement and interest to the water feature.
There are so many ways in which we can improve our gardens for wildlife whilst also improving quality of life for ourselves too. No matter the size of your outdoor space, there will always be some way in which you can make it better for local wildlife, whether by providing much needed shelter, food or a breeding place for birds, butterflies and more.
I had this conversation with NHS podiatrist Robyna King, answering your most asked foot questions! This blog post is in support of the We are the NHS campaign. If you enjoy it, please do share on Instagram! If you have any further questions, please visit NHS Live Well.
Robyna King graduated from the University of Plymouth in 2012 with a first class honours degree in Podiatry and currently works in the Solent NHS Trust. Since qualifying as a Podiatrist, Robyna has experience of working in a variety of NHS Podiatry roles, with both clinical and management responsibilities. She particularly enjoys the opportunity to make a real difference for people; either providing direct patient care, supporting staff or service development. Robyna is looking forward to supporting staff through a Podiatry Apprenticeship Degree later this year and is excited by the personal development this will also provide.
Any advice for preventing blisters? What should you do once you have them?
Blisters for runners are very common as well as for many people when they start wearing a new pair of shoes for example.
There can be some ways to prevent blisters when running and exercising such as:
Wearing 2 pairs of socks or there are some double layer socks you can purchase. These can help reduce the friction on areas of the foot prone to blistering for example under the ball of the foot, heels, and toes by putting the stresses on the sock rather than the skin.
Using Surgical Spirit, applying to vulnerable skin with a cotton pad 2-3 times a week, which helps strengthen skin. This can also be used between the toes to prevent them become sore and too soggy when they get hot and sweaty in your trainers. Follow the guidance on the bottle and do not use on broken skin.
Ensuring your trainer and shoes fit you correctly. We advise footwear with a fastening such as laces to ensure they are tied and tightened to support the foot and prevent the foot from moving in the shoe causing friction of the tendons and joints from having to overwork to keep your shoe in place. Having the footwear wide enough at the toes and ball of the foot is very important so that they don’t get too much pressure in the wrong places. If you are struggling with getting footwear to fit it can be worth finding shoe or sport shops that help fit shoes.
When treating blisters, you should try to avoid bursting or popping them, instead allow the blister fluid to be reabsorbed into the skin and heal naturally.
If, however, they have already burst and the skin is open, it is very important to clean the area carefully and apply a sterile plaster or dressing while the area heals. This will not only prevent further friction on the skin but also reduce the risk of an infection by keeping it clean and dry. If you have a large intact (not burst) or open blister, then it is worth having a rest from running or exercising where you are weightbearing (on your feet) to give the skin chance to heal.
If the skin or blister area becomes red, hot, swollen, has increased discharge or smell then it may be a sign you have an infection. If you notice these signs or the blister is taking a long time to heal, it is important you contact your GP surgery for guidance and likely will need some antibiotics.
2. If you have a collapsed or weak arches, how do you strengthen them?
It is important to know that many people naturally have lower arches or flat feet. Most people inherit this from their family and are born with this foot shape, some with no pain and do not need treatment such as insoles.
However, if they become painful or your feet have started to become flatter over a period of time then it is worth contacting a podiatrist for an assessment to see what individual treatment you may need and what may be causing the pain.
If you have painful arches it is best to avoid any strenuous exercises such as running as is high impact on your feet and joint and could make it worse or more painful.
Some people find intrinsic foot muscle strengthening can help to strengthen the muscles in the feet to support the arches. There are many strengthening exercises available including videos online including ‘the big toe stretch’. If you decide to try these start them gradually and only do a small amount at a time. Its best to try get do them regularly and get the into your routine but remember if you start getting any increased pain or side effects stop.
3. Many runners lose toenails in training or races – is this harmful? How can you stop it?
It is very common for runners to lose toenails, which to the person can cause some worry and pain. Losing the toenail itself does not always cause any harm, however if the skin on the nail bed is broken which would need a sterile dressing or plaster applied and follow similar advice to above when discussing looking after blisters that burst (Q1).
Over time if you damage a nail through regular trauma, where the nail is repeatedly knocked or the nail falls off, it can damage the nail cells (where the nail grows from) meaning the nail will grow back thicker or a different shape. This can make the individual feel the nail is unsightly or can be painful. If the nail is thicker you can help by filing over the surface of the nail to carefully thin the nail slightly as they can be difficult to cut.
If this does not manage it, I would advise they contact a podiatrist for advice on treatment whether that be how to prevent the trauma to the nail, cutting/filing the nail in a way to manage it or have the nail removed permanently to prevent it growing back.
Ways to prevent it include ensuring your running trainers fit correctly, avoiding running downhill or on rough terrain as this often puts increased pressure on the nails and cutting your toenail carefully straight across so they are not too long and pressing on ends of the trainer.
4. Should we all be moving towards zero-drop/barefoot shoes? What are the benefits, if any?
For some people this can be the right option but for many it is not. There is little research to say moving toward zero/low drop or barefoot shoes can help with performance or for any other practical reasons. Therefore, unless you have been advised to for other reasons and you are used to running in this way then I would not advise to just start this without getting further individual guidance.
5. How can runners deal with bunions? Are they always problematic?
Similar to low arches and flat feet, one reason we can get bunions is because we inherit them as part of our foot shape. They are not always problematic even if they are quite prominent or not aesthetically pleasing.
Depending on the cause of the bunion it can change how a podiatrist would advise you manage them. Pain from a bunion could be from the joints or tendons being inflamed, or it could just be that because skin on top of the bunion gets rubbed and sore and could cause blisters.
Some find bunion supports or protectors to help with the bunion and skin getting sore.
Others may find insoles/orthotics can help to reduce pressure and workload on the bunion area and encourage the rest of the foot to do more. The main thing to help to reduce pain or you getting a problem is to follow guidance on footwear, including wider fitting shoes with a fastening and a stretchy material upper of the shoes that sits around the bunion to avoid pressure.
If you would like further advice on individual management of your bunions or joints in the feet then contact a podiatrist for an assessment to see what other options may be available including insoles and surgery options.
6. How did you get into podiatry?
I always wanted to do something in the health field to help make people better. I was lucky enough to do some work experience when I was 16 in a private Podiatry clinic and an NHS physiotherapy department.
I loved both but my choice was Podiatry as I felt it was a bit unusual and that there were so many opportunities for different roles in the future in the NHS. I completed my A levels at sixth form including Biology and Psychology and then applied to university to complete a Podiatry BSc(Hons) Degree. It is a 3-year course and included both theory and practical skills which I really enjoyed, as I went on placements to different NHS Podiatry Services to learn on the job experience with NHS Podiatrists. When I qualified as a Podiatrist, I then applied using the NHS Jobs website to find roles in my local area and a couple of years later ended up in the Solent NHS Trust which is where I am now. I have loved being able to develop my skills and continue to learn things every day, which most importantly helps patients and support them with their foot conditions making a real difference for them!
As a podiatrist I have great opportunities to use all different skills including wound care, nail surgery and MSK (musculoskeletal) care. We can work in patient’s homes, hospital and health centres, meeting a variety of people along the way.
So, I would say if you are interested in health care and do not mind looking at feet all day this is the job for you! If anyone is interested in podiatry as a career or any health profession look on https://www.healthcareers.nhs.uk/ which shows all the amazing careers out there and what to do to have a health career including going to university or even apprenticeship courses which are available for some professions.
7. Should runners be doing anything specific to look after their feet? Creams? Massage?
You will see a lot of this has already been answered in some of the other questions for example how to prevent blisters, prevent painful arches and bunions.
Here are my top tips to look after your feet if you are a runner:
Wear good fitting trainers that are wide enough, have a fastening and good cushioning sole for shock absorption.
Air out your trainers and footwear after wearing them and rotate the use of your shoes (so you are not always wearing the same pair) to ensure they have chance to breath and dry, which prevents bacteria and fungal spores growing.
Don’t save your new trainers to wear for a race or long training session. It can be best to wear them in gradually over a few shorter sessions preventing blisters and allowing your foot to get use to that style/shape of footwear.
Wear good quality socks to protect your skin and prevent friction.
Wash your feet and change your socks daily and after exercising, this can prevent fungal infections on the skin or nails and will keep the skin condition healthy and clean.
If you think you have a fungal infection also known as ‘athletes foot’ speak to your pharmacist about treatments available over the counter. If not improving, then consider discussing with a podiatrist or your GP.
Dry feet well all over and between toes after washing them. This again prevents fungal infections and the spaces between your toes from getting too soggy and sore. Using surgical spirit as advised in question 1 can help too.
Using a urea base foot cream can help hydrate the skin on the feet, preventing hard skin and calluses. It is best to use daily all over your feet but not between toes after you have washed them.
8. Plantar Fasciitis. What is it and how can it be helped? Are there any injuries assumed to be PF that are actually something else?
Plantar Fasciitis (PF) is a painful condition where there is inflammation of the plantar fascia, which is a structure that supports the foot from the heel to the toes. It can affect both feet or just one foot and the pain is normally felt around the heel and can sometimes be felt into the arch or into the calf. It is a very common condition and can affect both those that do and do not exercise regularly.
Check out the NHS website for further guidance but here are some simple ways that can help if you believe you have or have been diagnosed with PF.
As tight calf muscles can exacerbate and potentially cause PF therefore stretching your calf muscles (the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles into your Achilles tendon) may help. You can find safe, gentle stretches for these muscles and the Achilles Tendon online. It is important to start any exercises or stretches slowly and gradually build up. If you start getting more pain or any side effects, then it is important to stop.
Footwear being changed to more supportive shoe as advised in previous answers
Choose more non weightbearing exercises such as swimming and cycling, whilst the foot is inflamed and painful
Ice to reduce any inflammation that may be present. 20minutes daily recommended either in form of frozen peas or similar wrapped in damp cloth or foot rolling over a chilled bottle or can. This can really help discomfort especially after a day on your feet.
Often with these treatments and over a couple of weeks it can resolve and reduce in pain. But if these treatments do not help it may be that you do not have PF and could instead have another issue or need more individual advice or care. It is important to contact your GP for further advice or contact a local podiatrist. The podiatrist would be able to do an assessment to look at the lower limb and foot structures, review your gait (the way you walk) and much more to help to diagnose PF, another condition and give more treatment options including insoles/orthotics and specific exercises.
9. What’s the most common issue you deal with as an NHS podiatrist?
At the moment in my local NHS Podiatry clinics, we are prioritising the most poorly feet in the service during the COVID-19 pandemic, therefore, the main conditions we manage are foot ulcerations using our wound care skills and knowledge. This is often for patients with medical conditions that cause reduction in circulation to the foot and/or loss of sensation due to nerve damage. Our main goal the podiatry treatments we provide is to aid with wound healing and reduce, where possible, infection and amputations from occurring.
The second condition we see a lot of are ingrowing and painful toenails conditions. We complete a lot of nail surgery clinics where we carry out a minor surgery under local anaesthetic to remove a painful toenail. Those are only two areas of specialisms we deal with in podiatry and we do so much more with supporting the management of foot and lower limb conditions including pain management and mobility support.
10. What’s your favourite foot fact?!
My favourite foot fact is your feet can continue to ‘grow’ even into older age. Meaning there is always an excuse to go shoe shopping and buy new shoes! The reason behind this change in size despite normally finishing their growth stage by age of 20, is that feet can either swell or your tendons and ligaments loosen in the feet causing the feet to spread, making the foot wider and longer. This can happen with age, certain medical conditions or even pregnancy!
Robyna is supporting NHS England’s ‘We Are The NHS’ campaign. To find out more about a career in the NHS, please search‘NHS Careers’ or visit We Are The NHSto find available roles and training support on offer.
Emma Kirk Odunbi is a strength and conditioning coach who specialises in running shoes, having previously worked in a trainer store. She shares running motivation, kit advice and lots of info about feet and shoes!
Holly Rush is a running coach and GB athlete. She knows what she’s talking about when it comes to running and produces plans to suit all abilities. She is also the co-host of Marathon Talk podcast which is great!
Ultra-athlete Carla Molinaro has recently completed a 100km road race, and is the LEJOG world record holder, an incredible feat. As an endurance athlete, she knows a thing or two about nutrition, and preaches balance in all things.
Sports dietician Renee McGregor specialises in REDs, overtraining and eating disorders, especially in athletes. Follow for no-nonsense advice about fuelling properly when running. She also takes part in many ultramarathons so really knows what she’s talking about.
This is an online run coach and strength training guide, but also shares loads of interesting information about various elements of running. They also interview some great athletes to hear their stories.
Physiotherapist Aiden O Flaherty specialises in running injuries and performance, and promotes exercise for both the mind and body – something I also feel strongly about. Follow for useful vids and sensible advice if you’re a runner.
Manni is a Nike running coach and physiotherapist and shares some great drills nd physio sessions on his page. As with everyone else on this list, he preaches balance – not performance at the expense of health, or health at the expense of happiness.
Dr Hazel Wallace is an NHS doctor and nutritionist. She shares SO much great and balanced information on her page, I honestly think everyone should be made to follow her. She also has a great podcast that’s worth a listen.
Dr Rupy Aujla suffered from burnout in his early hears of being a doctor, and since has shared information about how to live a healthy and balances lifestyle. He has loads of great recipes and balanced advice on his page, as well as a great podcast!
Charlotte Fisher shares a lot of the same sentiments as I have when it comes to nutrition and performance. Nutrition needs to be healthy for the mind as well as the body. These posts are great for anyone who doesn’t have a perfect relationship with food.
Faye is a sports nutritionist looking at the scientific evidence behind various popular diets, sport-related topics such as overtraining and myth busting a lot of the bro-science you see on the internet.
It’s rare that someone gets so famous for sharing science, but Natacha is the perfect example of someone who is well known for literally all the right reasons. As a biophysicist and athlete, she shares science-based information in lay terms on her Instagram and YouTube, as well as great workout videos and challenges.
For more evidence-based information on fitness, health, nutrition and the industry as a whole, give Sohee a follow. She delves into the primary literature (so you don’t have to) and supports a balanced approach to nutrition and lifestyle.
Alyssa Olenick is great for promoting a variety of types of fitness both for health and enjoyment. While she’s currently trining for an ultramarathon, she promotes healthy lifting for the health benefits. She is also very open about where her areas of expertise start and end – kudos for that.
Women’s Aid ambassador and Women’s Health columnist Alice Liveing is a qualified Personal Trainer with over a decade of experience in the industry. She hosts live workouts daily and promotes the use of training to support everyday life, not the other way around. Everything is about balance!
I had this conversation with Emily Davies Physiotherapist, answering your most asked physio questions! This blog post is in support of the We are the NHS campaign. If you enjoy it, please do share on Instagram!
1. How do you know whether a pain/a niggle is something you can run through or something to rest and check?
Symptoms such as swelling, pain when weight bearing, redness, the joint area giving way, numbness, pins and needles, reduced strength/ movement due to pain can all be worth a professional opinion.
Ask yourself how long have you had this pain for. It’s not uncommon to get pins and needles after exercise as well as redness/ swelling if you’ve been working hard but this can often resolve on its own. If this is something that’s happening persistently it’s definitely worth getting it looked at.
If symptoms aren’t persistent and you’ve only had this pain/ niggle recently when running, rest is your best friend! Listen to your body if it’s in pain. Our body needs rest to strengthen and adapt. Rest, ice and elevation can often help these niggles! If after this you are still getting pain, ignoring it will only end up doing more harm and the recovery is likely to be worse.
2. What’s your best advice for those that sit at a desk all day?
Planning your day in advance is a massive help in ensuring you achieve what you set out to. If you are sitting at a desk all day, getting up every hour is so important; whether that is just going to the kitchen to make yourself another cup of tea! (Check out this blog post on how I keep active when working a desk job).
If your job means you aren’t active during the day, make up for this in the evening, it doesn’t have to be something intense! It could be going for a walk outdoors- this will be great for your mental health too, releasing those endorphins and improving your mood! Try and set yourself a goal, that way you are more likely to stick with it e.g. how many steps do you want to achieve each day?
If it means you are sitting at a desk all day, you need to look after your posture and your musculoskeletal system. Make sure you are sat at a chair you find comfortable with back support, feet flat on the floor, screen at eye level, try and avoid crossing your legs! Working at home during the pandemic is not easy but it’s important you have the correct equipment to ensure you aren’t straining your posture/ body. Speak with your workplace if it is concerning you.
3. How is it best to return to running after a long period of time off?
Build it back up slowly, if you dive straight into the level you were previously at, your muscles and joints will be at risk of injury. Stretching your calves, quads and hip flexors after your runs will help to reduce risk of injury.
Make yourself a goal! What would you like to achieve with your running? But it is really important you make this goal realistic to yourself and over a realistic time frame! How far do you want to be able to run and by when?
Make sure you take some days off to start with to give your body time to recover. Even just going for a gentle walk, cycle or swimming (when we can access swimming pools again!) can also help build our endurance/ strength. Swimming is brilliant as it is a non-weight bearing form of exercise which provides our joints with a bit of a rest!
Footwear is also so important! Make sure you’ve got some correctly fitting trainers with good shock absorption qualities for running and are supportive for you! There are more top tips on running form in one of the answers below!
4. Words of wisdom for someone starting physio at university?
One thing I wish I’d have had a better understanding of before I started my degree in Physiotherapy was the range of areas involved in this profession. Having a good understanding of this will put you in a great position at your lectures on all the different areas e.g respiratory, musculoskeletal and neurology
Don’t be afraid to use your course mates for studying! The best way I found to learn anatomy/ practical treatments was with my course mates. Remember you aren’t the only one learning this whole new topic, your course mates will be in the same position as you so learning together will widen your depth of knowledge!
Printing off lecture power points and annotating them as you go is another tip I recommend! With permission of you lecturer, recording lectures was hugely helpful for me. This way, for anything I didn’t understand or was struggling to learn I would listen to the lecture over again to confirm my understanding.
And finally, your placements! This is where you get to transfer all that you’ve learnt into real life situations. Really make the most out of your placements, get as much experience in different professions that work alongside physios so you are aware of the bigger picture of your multidisciplinary team! And ask as many questions as you can!
5. What’s the most common issue you see as a physio and the easiest way to avoid it?
Achilles tendinitis is a common injury we see a lot of, especially during lockdown where more people are taking up running due to gyms being shut. Most Achilles injuries can be treated at home with support of a qualified physiotherapist. It is important to get issues like this checked as overuse of our tendon can lead to a rupture, resulting in surgery in worst cases.
To avoid injury in the first place, increase your activity level slowly whilst stretching and strengthening the area. A good tip is being aware that we have two calf muscles (gastrocnemius and soleus) so we must stretch them both!
Again, having good fitting trainers with enough padding to help with shock absorption will help prevent this injury.
6. What makes a good physio?
A good physio knows the importance of building trust with you, as it is likely you will see your physio over a period of sessions, so it is important to make sure you have a mutual regard and respect during the sessions. I’d check for continuity reasons that you will have the same physio for all your treatments rather than have to build up a rapport with a new physio on each session!
7. Should you stretch? If so, how often? Any specific stretches you’d recommend?
Stretching is SO good for your body! Stretching can improve range of movement, decrease stress levels, reduce pain/stiffness, reduce risk of injury and improve blood flow and circulation.
Stretching once in a blue moon will not make a difference to your flexibility, consistency is key!
I would start off with a manageable amount of stretches each day e.g. 5 and as long as the stretch is not painful, I’d recommend holding for between 30-60 seconds. Try to implement stretches into your daily routine, even better after you have been exercising so your muscles are warmed up.
Be aware that as the muscle we are stretching becomes more flexible, it is at risk of becoming weaker so completing strengthening exercises of the same area is recommended.
The main stretches I would recommend to anyone starting off would be targeting our main muscle groups! This would include the hamstrings, hip flexors and glutes. I also think that stretching out our muscles in the shoulders/chest (trapezius and pectorals) is important in improving posture, especially now people are working from home more.
8. Any general advice on running form?
Be aware of your posture, it is so easy when you are running to forget about posture but try to be aware of your shoulders, keep your back straight and make sure you aren’t leaning forwards. Having a stooped posture when running can lead to back, shoulder and neck issues in the future.
Find a stride that works for you; land gently to help prevent any injuries. Elbows tucked in by your side and good arm swing will help maintain a rhythm and propel you forward also.
Again, completing frequent stretches and strengthening exercises for our big muscle groups e.g. abdominals and glutes will help stabilize your running technique.
9. How is it best to support recovery e.g. on a rest day, after training etc? Top tips?
Stretching after training will support our recovery by eliminating lactic acid build up and improving our blood flow. Try and incorporate stretches after every work out to support your recovery. A gentle walk on a rest day will also help reduce joint stiffness by circulating the blood flow. Correct nutrition will also support our recovery e.g. Consuming an adequate amount of protein will help recover muscle fibres that may have been damaged through exercise as well as helping to replenish any depleted energy stores. Recovery days are important as these are days which allow our muscles to repair and therefore strengthen and improve performance. Everyone is different in regard to how many rest days a week they should have but I would recommend to rest the muscle group the day after you exerted it. Definitely make sure you are sleeping enough also, our body needs sleep to recover, try to get a good 7-9 hours.
I would also recommend foam rollers, ice/ heat packs and even a sports massage to also aid recovery for more intense training schedules.
10. How should I treat/prevent runner’s knee?
If you start to experience pain around the knee (patella area more specifically) when you are running, bending your knee, kneeling, walking down hill/ downstairs, you may have runners knee. It’s a very general term for knee pain that may not have stemmed from running.
It is a problem that can often resolve itself.
To treat it I would recommend resting the knee from strenuous activities for around 2 weeks e.g. running, squatting, lunging. Not everyone will get swelling with this pain, but a cold ice pack on the area for 20 minutes or so every 4-5 hours can ease not just swelling but the pain also. Elevating your knee when you can will also help with swelling.
To treat / prevent this condition, correct footwear can help improve position of your feet and therefore pressure around the knee. I’d also recommended stretching and strengthening the area around the knee. For stretching, I would target the quadriceps, calf, hip flexors and hamstrings. For strengthening I would recommend calf raises, wall slides, clams, step ups and glute bridges. As always, if this pain persists, get it looked at by a professional.
Emily is supporting NHS England’s ‘We Are The NHS’ campaign. To find out more about a career in the NHS, please search‘NHS Careers’ or visit We Are The NHSto find available roles and training support on offer.
Ok, ok, not ALL the time, but the runner’s high is a real thing, and with over 858,000 people downloading the NHS couch to 5k app in lockdown 1, there must be something going for it! There are many elements that make running positive for your mental health, and it is increasingly being seen not only as great for the body, but for the mind too. So what is it about running that makes it so good for your brain and mood? Let’s look at the science.
A brain imaging study on endurance athletes and healthy controls at rest showed an increase in coordinated activity in some brain regions involved in executive functions (decision making) and working memory. They also found a reduction in ‘default mode’ activity – what our brain does when distracted, i.e. nothing very useful. This part of the brain is also linked to clinical depression, showing one pathway by which consistently running may reduce depressive tendencies and improve brain health. Interestingly, these are similar results to those seen in meditation – while running you’re turned into your surroundings, and what your muscles and breath are doing, not worrying about work, family or other stressors. So, running could be seen as a form of ‘active/moving meditation’.
Another study in mice showed that exercise breaks down a stress-inducing molecule Kyneurenine. The molecule itself builds up when you’re stressed, and can enter the brain, causing stress-induced depression and anxiety in some people. During exercise, there is a build up of an enzyme able to break down this molecule in the muscles, meaning it’s unable to enter the brain, protecting it against stress-induced depression.
Beta-endorphins are released in running, improving mood post-run. The hormone is generally used by the body to reduce stress, and, as an endogenous opioid, is also linked to reducing pain. This happens not just over the course of one run, but also over the space of several months, meaning that the effects can last long after you’ve ended a run. This is potentially the source of the elusive ‘runner’s high’, which usually starts to kick in after 30 minutes of running. It’s also one of the reasons that runs can feel very hard at the beginning but get easier throughout – pain relief and a reduction in anxiety are both side-effects of our body’s reaction to exercise.
While endorphins have long been credited for the runner’s high, it is likely that endocannabinoids play an even larger role. These are small enough to cross the blood-brain barrier (unlike endorphins), and act on the same receptors and systems that THC (the active ingredient of cannabis) does. This triggers feelings of euphoria, a sense of calm and reduced anxiety. There’s still a lot of research in this area and the mechanisms in humans still aren’t quite ironed out, but it looks promising!
Running (and exercise in general) also acts as a buffer to life’s stressors. In the same way that stressing out the body through exercise can lead to physical adaptations to cope, it can also lead to mental adaptations associated with resilience, which are then transferrable to other areas of life. Regular runners tend to be better able to cope with stress, thanks to the effects of
There are other endogenous benefits of running that may benefit the brain through indirect means, such as improved insulin response, improved immune function, improved circulation (including to the brain), increased energy levels, better sleep and improved focus (including the ability to multitask better!).
Tangential mental health benefits of running include having a feeling of community (the running community is like I’ve never experienced before), having quantifiable goals and the sense of accomplishment that comes with that, which is transferrable to other areas of your life. Running has been shown to improve your self-esteem – placing the focus on what your body can accomplish and how it feels rather than what it looks like is one of the best to move away from being sucked into diet culture and the constant drive to lose weight.
Evolutionarily, this all makes sense. As hunter gatherers, we would have had to chase prey for any miles, and having adaptations to a) make that feel good and b) reduce pain on long runs would have meant we were able to run further. And enjoying the chase/run would have meant more food for everyone, so better survival.
It’s important to note that many of these studied were either done on animals, or in small numbers of volunteers. However, anecdotally the benefits of running for the brain are multi-fold and substantial, and it’s great to see this backed by multiple studies. Hopefully we’ll start to see more of this in the coming years as the link between physical and mental health becomes increasingly clear.
While these benefits mainly pertain to running, it’s also possible to get many of the same benefits through other forms of aerobic and anaerobic exercise. The benefits may be to differing degrees, but the important thing is that you find a form of movement that is enjoyable and sustainable for you – there’s no point in overdoing it on a sport that you hate. Moving your body in whatever way feels best is a good place to start! And if you’re just starting your running journey, keep it up! It is always hard at first (and at second, and at third), but the benefits are SO worth it. If you enjoy this topic, check out the book Endure by Alex Hutchinson. It’s fascinating and delves into the science further without being hard to read.
It’s rare that a term becomes such a key part of common lexicon in such a short space of time as sustainability. The term itself is derived from the Latin ‘sustinere‘, meaning ‘to maintain’, ‘to hold’ or ‘to support’. The word can now be found used widely in policy, commerce and economics, usually in a way that pertains strictly to environmental sustainability
Around 30 years ago, the World Commission on Environment and Development published Our Common Future, charting a path for development that “meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” This is essentially our current definition of environmental sustainability. However, the term has since come under fire for lacking any unified, definitive or quantifiable meaning – basically, it means nothing.
There is no doubt that the fashion industry requires movement in a direction that manages its demands on the environment without compromising what’s available for future generations. No one would argue that the fashion industry, responsible for 10% of global emissions, doesn’t require more investment in ‘sustainability’, but without any quantifiable definition of the term, what does this look like?
Various other terms within many industries are verified using third-party certifications and accreditations, meaning that a brand or business has to prove it is doing something to be able to use the term. The Soil Association, for example, is a UK-based charity that regularly reviews manufacturing processes throughout the supply chain to ensure a business is producing organic products. You cannot use the term ‘organic’ without being certified. The Global Organic Textile Exchange (GOTS), does the same for textiles, showing the buyer that the products throughout the supply chain have been verified by an external body as organic.
One issue with sustainability within the fashion industry is that almost all accreditations are voluntary. Rather than having regulatory standards, similar to those within the food industry and mandatory energy labels on EU white goods, accreditations are seen as ‘optional extras’, often used as a marketing tool rather than a baseline standard.
Because of this erosion of state power, brands and organisations within the fashion industry looking to become more ‘sustainable’ are left in a state of ‘choice paralysis’; there are a multitude of private-sector accreditations which all claim to provide certification of ‘sustainability’ in marginally different ways. And of course, because they’re private sector, all claim to be slightly better than their variants, yet none are government regulated. This isn’t to say they don’t all provide some benefit – many do in considerable ways – it’s just that the whole industry is open to confusion and lack of regulation, to the point that the consumer has a very hard time understanding what they’re buying into.
So what can we do?
With WOVN’s 2020 consumer report showing an 84% increase in the use of terms such as sustainable, ethical, Fair Trade and eco-friendly and an increased desire to shop from brands seen as ‘sustainable’, it’s important now, more than ever, to understand what this term really means. As brands cotton on to this fact, there’s an increasingly opaque arms-race to appear more sustainable, where being truly environmentally conscious is almost secondary to appearing as such.
There have been calls to incorporate ‘Carbon Labelling‘ on clothing, but of course being sustainable isn’t about simply releasing as little carbon as possible (in the same way that the health of a food item isn’t about being as low calorie as possible), but also things like wastewater reduction, ceasing the use of harmful chemicals, improving labour standards, using renewable materials, reducing waste textiles and so much more. While innovative, labelling like this would only solve a proportion of the problem, and potentially just become another method of greenwashing.
Accreditations will play an important role in the fashion industry’s road towards becoming more in balance with the environment, but there are serious changes that need to happen, including regulation of the regulators. Consolidating numerous similar accreditations into larger, stronger and more rigorous ones would be a powerful first step.
Secondly, as a globalised industry, fashion requires international regulation. The majority of the textile industry has outsourced its negative environmental and social impacts to the Global South, affecting the people and habitats that can least afford to protect themselves, all the while making masses of money for the corporations residing in the Global North. This inequality simultaneously exacerbates the issues and hides them from view of the consumer. This means that it’s hard to know how what you’re buying is impacting the people who made the clothes, for better or worse. Because of this, we need international regulations throughout the supply chain, protecting both the environment in the world’s most biodiverse areas and those most affected by the industry’s indiscretions.
In the meantime, companies must be more transparent about their supply chains, allowing the consumer to make their own decisions about what is ‘sustainable’ and what is not. After all, no brand is going to be perfect in all regards, certainly not while industry accreditations are such a minefield. It should be possible for the consumer to decide what matters most to them, and be able to accurately measure up brands to this standard. It is important that this doesn’t automatically disadvantage those choosing to become more transparent; while transparency may highlight areas requiring improvement, brands that choose to avoid transparency for fear of what it may show up should be penalised beyond those showing up less favourable elements within their supply chain. This is important because transparency is the first step towards accountability. Brands that doesn’t show the former will never have the latter.
Consumers, while requesting greater transparency and action from the worst offenders, should also realise that no amount of sustainable production will counteract buying clothes we don’t need. Buying less overall, buying secondhand, fixing what we already have and finding new homes for clothes we no longer wear will always be better than shopping, even from ‘sustainable’ brands.
Further up the chain there should be incentives and clear direction for brands wanting to do better. This direction should be passed on to suppliers, with brands using their purchasing power to push suppliers to be better, and workers using unions to effect chain from the ground up. Large brands and conglomerates especially have huge amounts of power to effect change, and it’s time they were forced to do so.
There are many steps available to brands looking to become more sustainable, in whichever way they choose to interpret the term.
However, without quantifying what sustainability actually means, it’s going to be difficult for the fashion industry to ever reach the goal of being ‘more sustainable’ in any meaningful way.
Currently there is a mishmash of private-sector accreditations and certifications all with overlapping goals being regulated with varying degrees of success. Without unifying these standards and consolidating the accreditations that exist, it will be hard for consumers to be able to assess which brands are truly sustainable vs which are using accreditations as a facade.
As the fashion industry is a global one, it requires global regulatory bodies, which currently don’t exist. Currently it is beneficial for brands to outsource their labour and environmental harm to the Global South, which doesn’t have the resources to protect itself. International regulation could limit this harm.
In the meantime, brands should improve transparency of their supply chains to allow consumers to choose who they want to buy from. Brands should be congratulated for improving transparency, although not at the expense of action which is the obvious end goal (H&M is one of the most transparent brands but also one of fashion’s biggest polluters – transparency can’t come at the expense of action).
Consumers have the power to request greater transparency from brands, and also to stop buying from the biggest polluters. Shopping small businesses is a great place to start, but we should only buy what we really need. No amount of sustainability will make up for purchasing a wardrobe of clothes you never wear.
Large brands have huge amounts of purchasing power and are in a strong position to effect change. It’s about time they did so.
If you enjoyed this blog post and would like to read more, there is a great report on palm oil, fishing and textiles, all of which suffer the same lack of unified regulation – you can read it here. If you regularly read and enjoy my articles, please consider making a small contribution to the running of my blog.
Hi everyone! Over the next eight weeks, I will be training for my first ever official 5k time trial. Other 5k efforts have all been as part of park runs (which I’ve dearly missed over lockdown), and after a year of steadily getting slower and slower (thanks to focussing on running further), I thought it about time to pick up the pace and get in a 5k PB. And I want you to join me!!
How can I join?
Whatever your ability, experience or goal, I’d love if you could join in both training for and racing this 5k. All you need to do is sign up to Strava (an app that records your runs) and join our virtual run club, March 5k timetrial.
Once you’ve joined, all your runs on Strava will upload automatically, you’ll be able to keep up with the other runners taking part. On 27th – 31st March, you’ll have the opportunity to race the 5k virtually alongside all the other runners.
What route should I race?
As a virtual event, there’ll be no official route you need to do the time trial on, although I would recommend you find a flat, relatively empty route for your effort. If that doesn’t exist (Dorset I’m looking at you), a hilly route will do just fine and be all the more impressive – good luck!
Is there a training programme?
If you’re looking for a training programme and not sure where to start, these are two that are great – one for those looking to get sub-20, and one for those looking to simply speed up their general running times.
Is there a way of joining in if I don’t have Strava?
You’re more than welcome to join if you don’t have Strava, but there won’t be an official ‘page’ for your participation. However, I will be recording my training on my Instagram and YouTube, so you can follow and subscribe to keep up with everything! If you tag me in your training runs on Instagram I’ll be sharing them on my stories so we can all keep each other motivated. 🙂